Elohim -- Word Study
What does ‘elohim’ mean according to the Word of God?
Many people believe it tells us God is a Trinity. Is this what the first verse of the Bible is saying?
In Hebrew there are plural words (more than two) and dual words (only two).
Most of the dual words in Hebrew are obvious, for instance, your hands, you only have two. The Hebrew word is ‘yadayim’, which shows that it means two. The word ‘yad’ means hand and the ‘ayim’ tells you there are two hands. Your feet, your eyes, your ears are all dual. Or it can mean double when referring to one person. An example is the name Ephraim. It is from the word ‘ephrat’ which means fruitful. But the name is Ephrayim, therefore it is a dual name, and means ‘double fruitfulness’. (Read Genesis 48:8-14 and you will know why)
But there are dual words that are not obvious, such as ‘mayim’, meaning water, ’shamayim’, meaning sky, and Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) to mention just three. (These are only examples; Hebrew always has irregularities)
‘Elohim’ is a plural noun, but it is also used in the singular. Because of the way it is spelt in English, we have often spoken of the ‘im’ as evidence that it is plural, however the Hebrew is ‘elohiym’. It is not just ‘im’ as we spell in English, nor is it ‘ayim’ as in the dual word, but is ‘iym’. The placement of the Hebrew vowels makes the difference between ‘iym’ and ‘ayim’; the consonants are the same. (Please note, this is the masculine ending only, we will not refer to female plural words and endings, but just look at elohim)
You will see in this Word study that ‘elohiym’ does not only refer to YHVH, the God of the universe, but also to a single heathen god, such as Dagon the fish god, or a goddess, such as Ashteroth.
Thus, it is a plural word that can refer to one God, whether the true God or a heathen one. It can also refer to heathen gods plural. It can also refer to the princes, judges and leaders of Israel. It can also be translated as ‘angels’ as in Psalm 8:5. The Masoretic Bible also translates it angels. Paul quotes the text in Hebrews 2:7, and used the word ‘angels’.
Obviously we need to be very careful when speaking of the word ‘elohiym’.
How can we tell if the word is singular or plural when it is not obvious, such as in Genesis 1:1?
Hebrew has a rule – when the verb in the sentence in singular, ‘elohiym’ is singular. If the verb is plural, ‘elohiym’ is plural.
In Genesis 1:1, the verb is ‘bara’, meaning ‘to create’ and translated as ‘created’ in the KJV. It is a single verb.
A Jewish lady said in response to the question as to whether ‘elohiym’ was to be read as singular or plural, replied, ‘Oh course its singular, there is only one God’. She spoke theologically, but grammatically she based it on the word ‘bara’, although she did not mention this fact.
Therefore ‘elohiym’ in the first verse of the Bible is a plural noun that is read as a singular name of one divine Person, God. Some have ignorantly translated the verse ‘In the beginning Gods created the heaven and the earth’. This is totally wrong.
Genesis 1:1. “In the beginning God (elohiym) created the heaven and the earth.”
This verse is an introduction to the subject of creation, and the book of Genesis. Its words are all-inclusive, but not detailed. Nothing can be proved from this verse except its obvious meaning. The following verses in Genesis outline the details of God’s creation, and we need to read the New Testament to identify Genesis 1:26 ‘Let us make…’
MEANING OF ELOHIYM
The word means: ‘God, gods, goddess, angels, judges, great, mighty, very great, exceeding great’. (Strong’s Concordance – 430)
The fact that the plural ‘elohiym’ is used for the true God does not mean He is a plural Being. This meaning is not in the Hebrew. Others have likened it to the custom of royalty speaking of themselves as ‘us’ and ‘our’, rather than ‘I’ or ‘my’, what they call the ‘plural of majesty’. Or even the pope in ‘magisterium’, as he also uses the plural!
We need to be careful not to add Western thoughts into the Hebrew, as there is a vast different way of thinking.
However, the word ‘elohiym’ for God or god, denotes greatness and authority. Of course when it refers to the God of the universe, His power is absolute. Angels have power, but less than God. The gods of the heathen are only great in the eyes of the people. When calling the leaders of Israel ‘elohiym’, they have authority in the nation.
All are ‘great’ in their sphere or office.
The word ‘elohiym’ can denote ‘an object of worship’, whether the true God or gods of the heathen. Even though the gods of the heathen are not really gods (Jeremiah 16:20), they are believed by those who worship them.
At times ‘elohiym’ denotes an experience or an event that is extremely great.
(Please note in the following examples, the word ‘elohiym’ may be in a different form in the Hebrew Bible, but always from the same root. Strong’s does not show the grammatical forms, but only the root word. I have not checked all in the Hebrew as this would be too time consuming, and would not achieve anything as it is out of the scope of this study)
TEXTS USING ELOHIYM AS ‘GOD’
Exodus 4:16. “Moses, thou shalt be to Pharoah instead of God (elohiym)”.
Exodus 7:1. “Moses, see, I have made thee a god (elohiym) to Pharaoh.”
These two verses are very important in the study of ‘elohiym’, especially the second one. Both times ‘elohiym’ must be singular as Moses was only one individual, To Pharaoh he was as God or a god.
The Jewish Masoretic Bible translates both these verses from the Hebrew “in God’s stead”, obviously preferred above Moses being made ‘a god’ to Pharaoh. However, both translations are correct, and Pharaoh finally realised that the word of Moses was the word of God.
Judges 16:23. “… to offer a great sacrifice unto Dagon their god (elohiym)…”
Other verses are as follows: Genesis 33:11. 41:51. Exodus 13:17. 20:2.5. Leviticus 25:17. Numbers 10:9. Deuteronomy 18:14. Psalm 51:17. 75:1. Zechariah 8:8. (Just a sample of hundreds)
ELOHIIYM TRANSLATED ‘GODS’
Genesis 3:5. “Satan said, ‘Ye shall be as gods (elohiym)’, knowing good and evil.”
The Jewish Masoretic Bible translates this “as God” (singular) Who is right? The word ‘hayah’, meaning ‘shall be’ is singular, therefore, ’elohiym’ should be God and not gods.
Genesis 35:2. “… put away strange gods (elohiym)”.
Exodus 12:12. “…. against all gods (elohiym) of Egypt”.
Exodus 20:3. “Thou shalt have no other gods (elohiym) before me….”
Exodus 23:24. “… not bow down to their gods (elohiym), nor serve them….”
Exodus 32:4. “These be thy gods (elohiym) O Israel….”
Exodus 32:1.31. “…. Up make us gods (elohiym)… the people have made gods (elohiym) of gold…”
These last texts are interesting. The Masoretic Bible translates both texts in the singular, “This is thy god (singular), O Israel and “…make us a god (singular)”. (All the Hebrew translation use god in the singular, and they have grammatical reasons for doing so. The word ‘to make’ is ‘asah’, similar to ‘bara’ and used interchangeably with it, is singular)
Exodus 34:14.15. “… thou shalt worship no other god (el), for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God (el). Lest thou go a-whoring after their gods (elohiym), and do sacrifice unto their gods (elohiym)….”
Exodus 34:17. “Thou shalt made thee no molten gods….”
Deut 10:17. “The Lord your God (elohiym) is God (elohiym) of gods (elohiym), and lord of Lords, a great God (el), a mighty, and a terrible, which rewardeth not persons, nor taketh a reward.”
This is an interesting text in the way it uses the word ‘elohiym’ for the true God as well as false gods in the one verse.
The Masoretic Bible translates it, “For the Lord your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the awful, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward.” Deut 10:17.
Both meanings are the same, however, the use of the word ‘the’ is preferable. The word ‘a’ is not denigrating the great and mighty God, but ‘the’ makes it more emphatic.
Psalm 136:2. “O give thanks unto the God (elohiym) of gods (elohiym)”.
ELOHIYM TRANSLATED AS ‘GODDESS’.
1 Kings 11:5.33. “…Ashtoreth, goddess (elohiym) of the Zidonians.”
ELOHIYM TRANSLATED AS ‘JUDGES’
Exodus 21:6. “…his master shall bring them to the judges (elohiym)….”
In this particular case, the judges held an important position in Israel, as they spoke on behalf of God. They were not an object of worship, but certainly men to be respected as holding a very high office and responsibility on behalf of God.
It is interesting that the Masoretic Bible says, “his master shall bring him to God….”, however, there is a little ‘a’ next to “God” and the margin says, “That is, the judges”.
ELOHIYM TRANSLATED ‘GODLY’
Malachi 2:15. “… he might seek a godly (elohiym) seed.”
The Masoretic Bible says, “… a seed given of God”, which is the meaning of the word in this verse.
ELOHIYM TRANSLATED AS ‘GREAT’
Genesis 30:8. (Rachel said) “… with great (elohiym) wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister….”
From this text we can understand the heaviness of Rachel’s heart that she could not conceive. Her sister Leah brought forth children, but Rachel could not. In her experience, her mental wrestlings were immense. The Jewish Bible translates ‘elohiym’ as “mighty”.
1 Samuel 14:15. “… the earth quaked, so it was a very great (elohiym) trembling.”
In order that the translators of the King James might make clear how large a trembling the earthquake was, they translated ‘elohiym’ as two words “very great”. The Masoretic Bible concludes the verse with, “so it grew into a terror from God.”
ELOHIYIM TRANSLATED AS ‘MIGHTY’
Genesis 23:6. (Abraham) “…. Thou art a mighty (elohiym) prince among us.”
Abraham was regarded by the Canaanites as being a mighty prince, even though he had no claim to their land. He just wandered back and forth, using their soil and grass for his many flocks, cattle and produce. This shows the respect they had for him. The Jewish text is the same.
ELOHIYM TRANSLATED AS ‘ANGELS’
Psalm 8:5. (What is man)… “Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels (elohiym) and hast crowned him with glory and honour.”
This seems an unusual translation of the text, but the Masoretic Bible is the same. The verse is quoted in Hebrews 2:7, and ‘angels’ is used again, however, this time the Greek word ‘aggelos’ (Strongs 32) is used, which is the common word for ‘angel’ in the New Testament.
Ellen White also uses the word ‘angels’, for she says, Adam and Eve were created “but ‘little lower than the angels’ (Hebrews 2:7), that they might not only discern the wonders of the visible universe, but comprehend moral responsibilities and obligations.” Education p20.
Man was made in the “image of God”, but in his capabilities, far lower than His Creator and originally a little lower than the angels.
* * * * * * * * * * *
As we look at the verses in this study, we can see that ‘elohiym’ always relates to something seen by human beings as majestic, mighty, exceeding great, far beyond the normal experience of life.
No one can take Genesis 1:1 alone and prove it to be a Trinity. All it says is that the great and mighty God created the heavens and the earth. In Genesis 1:26, we can see that God was speaking to someone, but at this point we do not know who it was.
However, a study of the Scriptures will reveal that it was His Son to whom He was speaking. Compare Proverbs 30:4 and Hebrew 1:1.2.
After the earth was created, and the beasts upon it, the Father and Son carried out their purpose to make man in their own image. God said to His Son, "Let us make man in our image.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * *
A Targum Translation of Genesis 1:1
Commentary on the Targums. “The Targums are interpretive renderings of the books of the Hebrew Scriptures (with the exception of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel) into Aramaic. Such versions were needed when Hebrew ceased to be the normal medium of communication among the Jews. In synagogue services the reading of the Scriptures was followed by a translation into the Aramaic vernacular of the populace. At first the oral Targum was a simple paraphrase in Aramaic, but eventually it became more elaborate and incorporated explanatory details inserted here and there into the translation of the Hebrew text. To make the rendering more authoritative as an interpretation, it was finally reduced to writing.” www.bible-researcher.com
I was watching ‘Back to our Roots’ on 3ABN, and the subject was the Trinity. During the program, Sasha, a Messianic Jewish scholar, said the word ‘bara’ (in Genesis 1:1 -- which means ‘to create’) is believed by scholars to be from the word ‘bar’ meaning ‘son’.
Suddenly I remembered receiving something from my Hebrew teacher some years back on Genesis 1 that sounded similar. I had been asked not to share it at the time, but have since written and requested permission. He wrote the following:
“Dear Margaretha, Feel free to use the information about Targum Neofiti that I sent you. It's fine. I'm not sure that I would say that bara' is from "bar" in Hebrew, but the word ‘bara' in Gen. 1 provided a convenient midrash since that exact form in Aramaic בָּרָא means "the son". Thus, some creative soul intertwined the notion of wisdom being with God in the beginning (Prov. 8) with the notion that this wisdom is God's Son. And this certainly corresponds with John's Gospel, that Jesus is the incarnate Word of God.” (Midrash is an attempt to explain the text)
This man is a Christian and a Trinitarian, so he does not believe there is a link between wisdom and God’s Son, however, his words are very interesting to us.
The Targum Neofiti says:
מלקדמין 6בחכמה 6ברא 6 דייי 7 בחוכמתא ברא ייי 1שׁכלל 2 ושׁכלל ית שׁמיא וית ארעא׃
From the beginning by wisdom the son of the LORD created the heavens and the earth.
Other reading: From the beginning by (the) wisdom the LORD created and formed the heavens and the earth.
My teacher continued: “Note that this text gives two readings. The main text (and reading) is in bold in both the text and in my translation. The yod, yod, yod (yyy) is the divine name, of course. In the bolded text bara’ “the son” precedes the preposition “di” that is attached to the divine name. The preposition “di” is a genitive marker in Aramaic and means “of” in this context and is one way Aramaic writes the construct state, i.e. “the son of YHWH”.
"Note that the verb שׁכלל means “to form”, so in the main reading, it is this verb that is used to translate ‘bara’ from Hebrew. The other reading, which I also translate below, “cleans things up”. I would consider this a later “clean up” so that it doesn’t read that “The Son of the Lord” created the heavens and the earth, but that “by wisdom the Lord created (bara’) and formed the heavens and the earth”, but not all agree. It is possible that what I call the main reading is secondary and that the “other reading” was primary. Either way, it’s interesting.”
Yes, it is very interesting. Oh that we knew more of what the Hebrew contains!